Historical events point out the evolution of the fortress: in 1421 the city is devastated and the entire City Council is forced into slavery, the failed Turkish incursion in 1432 due to the strong defense system. Iancu de Hunedoara (John Hunyadi), Voivode (ruler) of Transylvania, played a very important role in developing the defense system, which was amplified until 1646. The fortified defense ring of Brașov made it one of the best fortified medieval Transylvanian towns.
In the XIVth century the burg (fortress) was built around the main square and the St. Mary Parish Church, also known as the Black Church, rebuilt in 1388.
The Renaissance is reflected in the homes of the urban Patricians, most of them built in the XVIth century. Between 1639 and 1641, the fortifications of Brașov are enhanced in the northern part of the city, comprising many defense walls and moats. The finalization of these works is marked by the Goldsmiths’ Tower, erected in 1646. In 1689 the most devastating fire in the history of Brașov affects most of the major building within the fortress. The rebuilding works were conducted in a slow manner and the edifices were rebuilt according to the new styles: Baroque, Rococo and Classic.
The most important baroque edifice in Brașov is the Roman-Catholic Church of St. Peter and Paul, built between 1776 and 1782. The Greek-Orthodox Holy Trinity Church, located today in George Barițiu Street, is built between 1784 and 1787 out of the donations of Romanian and Greek merchants but also with the support of boyars Brîncoveni, Văcărești, Șuțu and Mavrocordat from Walachia. The prosperous Romanian merchants settled in the fortress are acquiring old Saxon houses or building grandiose residences according to the epoch style. This period is marked by Neoclassicism.
The transformation from a medieval town into a modern city implies expansion to the northeast (towards Old Brașov and Blumana) and west (towards Șchei) by taking down the fortified defense ring. These works began in 1857 (Gate Street and corresponding fortifications), Black Street Gate (1873), Horse Market Gate (1874), Goldsmiths’ Tower (1866), Saddlers’ Tower (1887). The old defense moats, ponds and waterholes have been filled and public and administrative building have been erected, as well as schools, garrison barracks and villas, parks and promenades were also established.
Tâmpa Mt.: Most of it (150 ha) is declared a natural reserve, due to the animal species (bears, lynxes, wolves, butterflies – 35% of all the butterfly species in Romania, birds) and rare plants (liverleaf, rye brom) which are to be found on this mountain. The peak can be reached by cable car or by foot, on the 25 turns of a serpentine road.
Solomon’s stones mark the keys of the Solomon River. This location, situated beyond Șcheii Brașovului, is nowadays a relaxation point and grill place for the people of Brașov.
Nicolae Titulescu Park
Weavers’ Tower: Considered by specialists the most unique building of this type in Romania, this tower is very well preserved. The Weavers’ Tower is located at the base of the Tâmpa Mountain, in the south-west corner of Brașov fortress.
The Merchants’ House: A monument of urban architecture from the XVIth century, this building was a former commercial center of craftsmen and merchants from Brașov.
The Council Square: Officially attested in 1520, the Council Square was for many years the city center and the market place of Brașov. In the middle of the square there is a pillory used to punish the villains.
The Black Church is the Evangelical church in downtown Brasov. The building was partially destroyed during the great fire of 1689, hence the name “Black Church”. This edifice isn’t famous just because of its size: the bell tower shelters the biggest bell in Romania, made of bronze and weighing 6 tons. Also, the collection of oriental carpets belonging to the Black Church is the richest in Romania.
St. Nicholas Church - Commissioned in 1495 by Neagoe Basarab, ruler of Walachia, this church shelters valuable mural paintings in the XVIIIth century style and various Romanian works of art.