Historical proofs attest the existence of this settlement from the Daco-Roman period. The Plateau of the Podmoale Hill, several meters away from Dealul Turcului (Turk’s Hill) housed a Roman castrum (Castrum Senarum or Capisestrum), meant to overlook the Valley of the Târnava Mare River (Big Târnava).
Throughout history, this settlement has been robbed, destroyed, burnt down but every single time it was rebuilt by the locals. The migrating peoples have not succeeded in pushing the Romanians away from their location.
Out of all the migrating peoples, the Hungarians settled in these lands around the XIth century. The XIIth century marks the massive German colonization: in order to protect the borders, King Geza II brings colonists from the regions of the Rhine, the Mosel, Saxony and Flanders, granting them special rights and privileges over the fundus regius (Royal Land). The locals didn’t receive these outlanders quite well, hence the fortified shelters built by these new inhabitants. Each house slowly transformed itself into a small fortress, a solid building surrounded by strong walls, grated windows with shutters, big gates with heavy locks. Afterwards, they built fortresses with towers and massive defense walls. This is how the Citadel of Sighișoara was built.
A document of 1280 attests the locality under the name Castrum Sex, and in 1298 under the dialect name Schespurch (purch = burg, citadel). The Romanian form of the name, Sighișoara, appears in a written document issued by Vlad Dracul in 1431.
The name “Castrum Sex” could be explained by the fact that up until the middle of the XIVth century, Sighișoara was ranked the sixth out of the seven Saxon fortresses, as mentioned in a document from 1349, which also reflects a prior situation. Interesting enough, in 1376 Sighișoara is ranked second after Sibiu.
The medieval Citadel is one of the most beautiful citadels in Europe, almost entirely preserved and one of the few places, that is presently inhabited. It was built in the XIIIth century and later restored in the XIVth century, having the aspect of a settlement with narrow streets and old massive buildings.
The Clock tower is the main attraction of the Citadel and represents the town symbol. Its name derives from the clock with the figurines situated at the fourth floor of the tower, a unique clock in Romania.
The Rope Makers’ Tower, built probably in the XIIIth century, was part of the initial fortress situated on the top of the hill.
The Butchers’ Tower was built in the second half of the XVth century. The Tailors’ Tower was built in the XIVth century.
The Venetian House is located in the Museum Square and gets the name from its gothic arched doors and double windows, closed by a foiled arch.
Vlad Dracul’s House is one of the Citadel’s oldest civil buildings made of stone, judging by the semi cylindrical stone arch at the ground floor. Between 1431 and 1435, this was the residence of Vlad Dracul, son of Mircea cel Bătrân.
The Stag House (the name derives from the stag trophy hung on the corner of the house) is a typical Transylvanian Renaissance construction, dating from the XVIIIth century.
The Monastery Church is a Gothic edifice near the Clock Tower. A monastery complex of the Dominican monks and the Franciscan nuns is located in the vicinity of the Church.
The St. Joseph Roman-Catholic Church was built in 1894 after the demolishing of the Franciscan monastery.